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  • 农村生活污水处理中的除磷技术应用
  • 本站编辑:浙江鹏达环保科技有限公司发布日期:2019-06-14 16:08 浏览次数:

随着我国农民经济收入不断提高和生活方式的变化,卫生洁具、洗衣机、沐浴等设施已经走进平常百姓家,这使得农村人均生活用水量和污水排放量不断增加。这些污水大部分未经处理或经过简单处理就直接排放到环境中,不仅给周边流域水环境质量带来负面影响,而且逐步对人类健康形成威胁。移动床生物膜反应器(MBBR)-离子交换除磷工艺属于一种新型的农村生活污水处理组合工艺,本文介绍了该工艺在处理农村生活污水中的特点及优势,并结合实际工程案例加以说明。

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With the continuous improvement of farmers'economic income and the change of their lifestyle, sanitary wares, washing machines and bathing facilities have entered ordinary people's homes, which makes the per capita water consumption and sewage discharge in rural areas increase continuously. Most of these wastewater is directly discharged into the environment without treatment or simple treatment, which not only has a negative impact on the water environment quality of the surrounding watershed, but also gradually poses a threat to human health. Mobile Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) - Ion Exchange Phosphorus Removal Process is a new combined process for rural domestic sewage treatment. This paper introduces the characteristics and advantages of this process in the treatment of rural domestic sewage, and illustrates it with practical engineering cases.

一、农村生活污水概述

Summary of Rural Domestic Sewage

1.农村生活污水来源及主要污染物

1. Sources and main pollutants of rural domestic sewage

农村生活污水是指在农村居民的生活过程中产生的污水,主要包括冲厕污水、厨房污水以及洗涤、洗浴污水,此外,还包括一些农村分散养殖过程中所产生的污水。研究表明,生活污水的污染物主要是有机物、氮和磷。其中,厨房污水和冲厕污水是有机物的主要来源,冲厕污水是氮的主要来源,洗涤、洗浴污水是磷的主要来源。

Rural domestic sewage refers to the sewage produced in the life of rural residents, mainly including toilet flushing sewage, kitchen sewage, washing and bathing sewage, in addition, it also includes some sewage produced in the process of decentralized farming in rural areas. The results show that the main pollutants in domestic sewage are organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. Among them, kitchen sewage and toilet flushing sewage are the main sources of organic matter, toilet flushing sewage is the main source of nitrogen, washing and bathing sewage is the main source of phosphorus.

2.农村生活污水的特征

2. Characteristics of Rural Domestic Sewage

农村生活污水的排放水量变化大,排放不均匀。一般来讲,农村一天之中生活污水排放量有早、中、晚3个高峰期,而午夜到凌晨污水产生量很少甚至出现断流现象。

The discharge of rural domestic sewage varies greatly and the discharge is uneven. Generally speaking, the discharge of domestic sewage in rural areas has three peaks in one day: early, mid and late, while the discharge of domestic sewage from midnight to early morning is rarely or even breaks.

此外,农村生活污水的水质与居民的生活习惯和当地风俗息息相关,生化需氧量(BOD)、氮和磷的含量变化范围比较广,但农村生活污水水质不是很差,可生化性好,几乎不含有毒有害等有机污染物和重金属离子。

In addition, the quality of rural domestic sewage is closely related to residents'living habits and local customs. The contents of BOD, nitrogen and phosphorus vary widely, but the quality of rural domestic sewage is not very poor, and it has good biodegradability, and contains almost no toxic and harmful organic pollutants and heavy metal ions.

二、移动床生物膜反应器(MBBR)-离子交换除磷工艺分析

II. Analysis of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) - Ion Exchange Phosphorus Removal Process

1.工艺选择原则

1. Principles of Process Selection

由于我国农村经济相比城市欠发达,很难配备专业的污水处理、运行管理人员,因此不能将过于复杂的城镇生活污水处理工艺照搬至农村。同时,考虑到农村人口居住特点以及生活污水的特征,选择农村污水处理工艺技术时,应考虑以下基本原则:自动化程度高,运行和后期维护管理简单;抗冲击负荷能力强,处理后的污水能达标排放;尽量减少污泥产量或者基本无污泥产生;优先考虑“适度集中处理”的模式,降低建设和运行费用。

Because the rural economy of our country is less developed than that of the city, it is difficult to equip professional sewage treatment and operation managers, so we can not copy the over-complicated municipal sewage treatment technology to the rural areas. At the same time, considering the residential characteristics of rural population and the characteristics of domestic sewage, the following basic principles should be taken into account when selecting rural sewage treatment technology: high automation, simple operation and late maintenance management; strong anti-impact load capacity, the treated sewage can meet the discharge standards; minimizing sludge production or basically no sludge production; giving priority to "moderate concentration place"; The mode of "rationalization" can reduce the construction and operation costs.

2.MBBR处理农村生活污水的优势及缺点分析

2. Advantages and Disadvantages of MBBR in Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment

(1)工艺优势分析

(1) Process Advantage Analysis

首先,相对于A2/0和膜生物反应器(MBR)工艺,MBBR操作运行简单,无需调试复杂的工艺参数,后期的运行维护方便。

Firstly, compared with A2/0 and MBR process, MBBR operation is simple, without debugging complex process parameters, and later operation and maintenance is convenient.

同时,MBBR高性能填料上富集了大量的活性微生物,增加了活性污泥量,抗负荷能力提升,污水处理能力增强,即使短时间内无进水,其内部的生态环境也能使活性微生物保持休眠状态,并且一旦重新进水,活性微生物的恢复速度远快于普通悬浮状态的微生物,适合农村生活污水水量变化大、排放不均匀的特征。

At the same time, MBBR high-performance filler enriched a large number of active microorganisms, increased the amount of activated sludge, increased load resistance, enhanced sewage treatment capacity, even if there is no water in a short time, its internal ecological environment can make the active microorganisms remain dormant, and once re-inflow, the recovery rate of active microorganisms is much faster than that of ordinary suspended microorganisms, which is suitable. Rural domestic sewage is characterized by large variation in water volume and uneven discharge.

此外,在农村生活污水处理工艺中,MBBR是一种微动力、低能耗工艺。曝气过程中,高性能填料之间的相互摩擦及剪切作用,可使气泡变得更小,增加氧气的利用率,提高曝气效率,降低曝气能耗。另一方面,在日处理量不大的农村生活污水处理过程中,MBBR工艺的曝气风机完全可以采用风量大、低耗能、噪音小的电磁鼓风机,最大程度地降低能耗及对周边环境的干扰。

In addition, MBBR is a micro-power and low energy consumption process in rural domestic sewage treatment process. In the aeration process, the friction and shear between high performance fillers can make the bubble smaller, increase the utilization rate of oxygen, improve the aeration efficiency and reduce the energy consumption of aeration. On the other hand, in the process of rural domestic sewage treatment with a small amount of daily treatment, the MBBR process aerator can completely use the electromagnetic blower with large air volume, low energy consumption and low noise to minimize energy consumption and interference to the surrounding environment.

最后,MBBR工艺的特点可以使其在高容积负荷、低污泥负荷下运行,工艺过程中剩余污泥产量低或长时间内可做到基本无剩余污泥的外排。因此,大大减少了污泥的产量,适合农村的基本情况,并且降低了污泥处理费用。

Finally, the characteristics of MBBR process can make it run under high volume load and low sludge load, and the production of excess sludge is low or no excess sludge can be discharged for a long time. Therefore, the sludge production is greatly reduced, which is suitable for the basic situation in rural areas and reduces the cost of sludge treatment.

(2)工艺劣势分析

(2) Process disadvantage analysis

MBBR工艺用于农村生活污水的处理,与A2/0和MBR相比,目前唯一的劣势在于无法有效保证磷元素的去除,尤其是在进水磷含量高,出水磷含量低的情况下。由于生物法中磷元素的去除依托于剩余污泥的外排,而为了实现污泥减量化来适应农村的基本情况,MBBR工艺基本不排泥或者很长时间才排放一次从高性能填料中脱落的失活污泥,这就使得磷元素的去除成为MBBR工艺的一个劣势所在。

Compared with A2/0 and MBR, the only disadvantage of MBBR process in rural domestic sewage treatment is that it can not effectively ensure the removal of phosphorus elements, especially in the case of high phosphorus content in influent and low phosphorus content in effluent. Because the removal of phosphorus in biological process relies on the discharge of excess sludge, and in order to achieve sludge reduction to adapt to the basic situation of rural areas, MBBR process does not discharge sludge or only discharges inactivated sludge from high-performance fillers once in a long time, which makes phosphorus removal become a disadvantage of MBBR process.

3.离子交换除磷工艺的优势

3. Advantages of ion exchange phosphorus removal process

目前,水体除磷的主流工艺包括生物除磷、加药除磷、人工湿地除磷、离子交换除磷和电化学除磷等。

At present, the main processes of phosphorus removal in water include biological phosphorus removal, chemical phosphorus removal, constructed wetland phosphorus removal, ion exchange phosphorus removal and electrochemical phosphorus removal.

通过对比不同除磷技术的优缺点,选择离子交换除磷技术作为MBBR的补充除磷工艺形成农村生活污水的强化除磷工艺,主要理由如下:离子交换除磷技术出水稳定;运行简单,操作方便;无污泥产生;离子交换树脂可以循环再生,重复利用,长期运行可以降低成本。

By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different phosphorus removal technologies, ion exchange phosphorus removal technology is selected as the supplementary phosphorus removal process of MBBR to form the enhanced phosphorus removal process for rural domestic sewage. The main reasons are as follows: ion exchange phosphorus removal technology has stable effluent, simple operation, no sludge production; ion exchange resin can be recycled and reused, and long-term operation can reduce costs.

4.MBBR-离子交换除磷

4. Phosphorus Removal by MBBR-Ion Exchange

MBBR-离子交换除磷工艺流程共分为四步

MBBR-ion exchange phosphorus removal process is divided into four steps

第一步,生活污水首先经调节池均量均质后由提升泵进入厌氧区

In the first step, domestic sewage is first homogenized in the regulating tank and then entered into the anaerobic zone by the lifting pump.


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